Research

Selected Research Relevant to Tai Chi & Qigong:

“Not everything that counts can be counted, and not everything that can be counted counts.” Quote attributed to Albert Einstein, (but in fact originated with sociologist William Bruce Cameron, 1963, “Informal Sociology: A Casual Introduction to Sociological Thinking”).

A General Overview of Research:

National Institute of Health (NIH) Overview of Health Benefits of Tai Chi: https://www.nccih.nih.gov/health/tai-chi-what-you-need-to-know (for lay people to get a good overview.)

National Institute of Health Research References (NIH links to Tai Chi studies on various health related conditions.

• “The Harvard Medical School Guide to Tai Chi” (Wayne & Fuerst, 1991) says: “regular practice leads to more vigor and flexibility, better balance and mobility, and a sense of well-being. Cutting-edge research from Harvard Medical School also supports the long-standing claims that Tai Chi also has a beneficial impact on the health of the heart, bones, nerves and muscles, immune system, and the mind.”

• Medical Research Library from World Tai Chi & Qigong Day-https://www.worldtaichiday.org/WTCQDHlthBenft.html

• The National Qigong Association: https://www.nqa.org/research-updates

• Jahnke, R. Larkey, L, Rogers, C, et .al,  2010).  A Comprehensive Review of Health Benefits of Qigong and Tai Chi, American Journal of Health Promotion, July/August. Vol 24, No 5.

Acupuncture Meridians and Points: Do they Exist & are they Efficacious?

• McDonald, J., & Janz, S. (2017). The Acupuncture Evidence Project: A comparative literature review (rev. ed.), https://www.asacu.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/Acupuncture-Evidence-Project-The.pdf . “…drew upon 136 systematic reviews and meta-analyses to examine pooled data from more than a thousand peer-reviewed randomized controlled trials (RCTs), finding “moderate” to “high quality” evidence for 46 of the conditions investigated, including several psychiatric disorders and various types of pain, and “some evidence” for beneficial effects of acupuncture in treating 117 of the 122 conditions. (Feinstien, 2024)

• Langevin, H. M., & Yandow, J. A. (2002). Relationship of acupuncture points and meridians to connective tissue planes.The Anatomical Record, 269 (6), 257–265. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ar.10185, https://doi.org/10.1002/ar.10185. “…using ultrasound images, Langevin and Yandow (2002) found an 80% correspondence between the sites of acupoints and the body’s connective tissues, suggesting an “anatomical relationship of acupuncture points and meridians to connective tissue planes” (p. 257).

• Sha Nan, Juan Wan, Qianghui Lie, et al. (2023), The involvement of the primo vascular system in local enteritis and its modification by electroacupuncture, Front. Immunol., 10 January 2023, https://www.frontiersin.org/journals/immunology/articles/10.3389/fimmu.2022.1072996/full. “…verified with staining procedures and high-resolution microscopy.” ” “the physical reality of acupuncture meridians has been confirmed by electroconductivity, hydraulic conductance, acoustic wave propagation, detectible light and heat delivery, radioisotope tracing pathways, and the propagated sensation along the channel” (para 21, citations for each method of confirmation are in the original).” (Feinstein, 2024)

Andrew C. AhnAgatha P. ColbertBelinda J. AndersonØrjan G. MartinsenRichard HammerschlagSteve CinaPeter M. WayneHelene M. Langevin, (2008), Electrical properties of acupuncture points and meridians: A systematic review, First published: 31 January 2008, https://doi.org/10.1002/bem.20403, ” …found that seven of the nine studies identified a positive association between acupuncture meridians, lower electrical impedance, and higher capacitance.” (Feinstein, 2024)

• Juan Li,1Qing Wang,1Huiling Liang,1Haoxu Dong,1Yan Li,1Ernest Hung Yu Ng,2and Xiaoke Wu1 (2012), Biophysical Characteristics of Meridians and Acupoints: A Systematic Review, Review Article | Open Access, Volume 2012,  Article ID 793841, https://doi.org/10.1155/2012/793841. “…tracer dyes, injected at acupuncture points, generated linear migrations closely aligned with the meridian charts, supporting an anatomical basis for the meridians and corroborating Langevin and Yandow’s earlier finding that the meridians operate within the connective tissue.” (Feinstein, 2024).

Fang, J., Jin, Z., Wang, Y., Li, K., Kong, J., Nixon, E.E., Zeng, Y., Ren, Y., Tong, H., Wang, Y., Wang, P. and Hui, K.K.-S. (2009), The salient characteristics of the central effects of acupuncture needling: Limbic-paralimbic-neocortical network modulation. Hum. Brain Mapp., 30: 1196-1206. https://doi.org/10.1002/hbm.20583. “fMRI studies during a 10-year research program conducted at Harvard Medical School showed that stimulating certain acupuncture points (acupoints) sends signals to various brain regions, such as the amygdala, that downregulate excessive activity ” (Feinstein, 2024). (Fang et al., 2009).

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS):

• McGee, R.W. (2022), A Suggestion for Treating Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), , Biomedical Journal of Scientific & Technical Research, DOI: 10.26717/BJSTR.2022.44.007072

• Chen, X, Bao, J. et al. (2013), The Use of Integrative Therapies in Patients with ALS in Shanghai;, Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine.

• Tan, Qi Cai, X. How to Treat ALS with Acupuncture and TCM,

Anxiety and Depression:

Yangjian Dong, Xiaoqin Kuang, Lili Dong, Guodong Chao, juancai Qi, Xinxin Zhang,, Jiwei Yao, Exploring the efficacy of traditional Chinese medicine exercise in alleviating anxiety and depression in older adults: a comprehensive study with randomized controlled trial and network meta-analysis, Front. Psychol., Vol 21410 December 2023,  https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2023.1290471

Arthritis: Rheumatoid

• Wang, C., Beyond drugs: can Tai Chi mind–body exercise be an alternative treatment for rheumatoid arthritis? Int. J. Clin. Rheumatol. (2011) 6(5), 477–479, Editorial: Tufts Medical Center

Back Pain: Lower Back Pain:

• Zhang, F, Zhao. J. et al., 2022). Meta-Analysis of Tai Chi Chuan in Treating Lumbar Spondylosis and Back Pain, Applied Bionics and biomechanics, Vol. 2022.

• Wayne, P. et. al, (2018) A Multidisciplinary integrative medicine team in the treatment of chronic low-back pain: An observational comparative effectiveness study, The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, Vol. 24, No. 8. https://doi.org/10.1089/acm.2018.0002.

Bone Health, Osteoarthritis, Osteoporosis;

• From the NIH site:Tai chi. A 2021 systematic review and meta-analysis of 11 randomized controlled trials involving a total of 603 participants found that tai chi was associated with improved walking function and posture control in older adults with knee osteoarthritis. A 2020 systematic review and meta-analysis of 20 randomized controlled trials and 2 case series found that compared to the controls groups, exercise (including tai chi and yoga) showed a small-to-high effect for improving pain, physical function, quality of life, and stiffness. A 2016 randomized, 52-week, single blind comparative effectiveness study involving 204 participants, found that tai chi produced beneficial effects similar to those of a standard course of physical therapy in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis. A 2021 systematic review and meta-analysis of 16 randomized controlled trials involving a total of 986 participants with knee osteoarthritis found that pain, physical function, dynamic balance, and physiological and psychological health were significantly improved for those practicing tai chi.

• From the National Center for Complementary & Integrative Health, NIH site: A 2015 review included 9 osteoarthritis studies with a total of 543 participants. The review concluded that tai chi improved pain and stiffness in osteoarthritis, and the authors noted that the improvement may increase balance. Updated 2019 guidelines from the American College of Rheumatology and the Arthritis Foundation strongly recommend tai chi for the management of both knee and hip osteoarthritis.

• Roger Jahnke, A Comprehensive Reviews of Health benefits of Qigong and Tai chi.Click link  search article for “bone,” bone density, Four articles that were randomly controlled studies.

• Maciaszek J, Osiski W, Szeklicki R, Stemplewski R. Effect of tai chi on body balance: randomized controlled trial in men with osteopenia or osteoporosis. Am J Chin Med. 2007;35:1–9.

• Bone loss and brittle Bones studies


• Arthritis and Tai Chi/qigong-References for the public.

Brain functioning:

•Ahlberg,, L. Exercise Enhances Brain Function Through Muscle-Nerve Interaction, Neuroscience, May 6, 2024;

Kai-Yu HuangGaurav UpadhyayYujin Ahn (2024), Neuronal innervation regulates the secretion of neurotrophic myokines and exosomes from skeletal muscle, PNAS, April 29, 2024, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2313590121

Breathing; Qigong, efficacy of long exhale breathing that activates parasympathetic nervous system— Vagal Nerve:

Long exhales are an easy way to “hack your vagus nerve:” https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/the-athletes-way/201905/longer-exhalations-are-easy-way-hack-your-vagus-nerve., Bergland, C., Psychology Today, May 9, 2019.

Slow breathing practices significantly increased time and frequency domain HRV metrics, diminished perceived stress, and improved decision-making:.slow breathing practices significantly increased time and frequency domain HRV metrics, diminished perceived stress, and improved decision-making. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0167876018303258.

Dutch research shows long exhale is correlated with improved physical health, mental health, and cognitive performance, https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnhum.2018.00397/full

Breath of Life: The Respiratory Vagal Stimulation Model of Contemplative Activity. Gerritsen RJS, Band GPH, Front Hum Neurosci. 2018 Oct 9;12:397. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2018.00397. PMID: 30356789; PMCID: PMC6189422.

Marijke De Couck, Ralf Caers, Liza Musch, Johanna Fliegauf, Antonio Giangreco, Yori Gidron, (2019), How breathing can help you make better decisions: Two studies on the effects of breathing patterns on heart rate variability and decision-making in business cases,International Journal of Psychophysiology,Volume 139, Pages 1-9, ISSN 0167-8760, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2019.02.011.(https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167876018303258)

Marc A. Russo, Danielle M. Santarelli, Dean O’Rourke, (2017) The physiological effects of slow breathing in the healthy human, Breathe 2017 13: 298-309; DOI: 10.1183/20734735.009817

Cancer: Are Medical Qigong and Guo Lin Qigong effective for Cancer? More research is needed.

• Guo Lin Qigong Reduces anxiety, improves immune function, reduces inflammation  and quality of life: The efficacy of Guolin-Qigong on the body-mind health of Chinese women with breast cancer: a randomized controlled trial
The efficacy of Guolin-Qigong on the body-mind health of Chinese women with breast cancer: a randomized controlled trial
• Jones, B. Changes in cytokine production in healthy subjects practicing Guolin Qigong : a pilot study, BMC Complementary & Alternative med, , 2001
• Tian Meng, et al, Medical Qigong increases Cancer survival rate time. Daniel Man Yuen SXE, et al. , Critical Review in Qigong & Immunity Cancer Research, International Journal of Complementary & Alternative Medicine, 2017,  DOI: 10.15406/ijcam.2017.07.00227
• Qigong for women with breast cancer: An updated systematic review and meta analysis, Complementary Therapies in Medicine, 2021, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ctim.2021.102743

Chinese Herbal Medicine Is Helpful for Survival Improvement in Patients With Multiple Myeloma in Taiwan: A Nationwide Retrospective Matched-Cohort Study, 2020, Huang, c, Wu, M, el al, Integr. Cancer Ther., Pub Med

Chronic Fatigue: A Randomized Controlled Trial of Qigong Exercise on Fatigue Symptoms, Functioning, and Telomerase Activity in Persons with Chronic Fatigue or Chronic Fatigue Syndrome.Rainbow T. H. Ho, Ph.D.,  Jessie S. M. Chan, M.P.H., Chong-Wen Wang, Ph.D.,  Benson W. M. Lau, Ph.D.,  Kwok Fai So, Ph.D., Li Ping Yuen, B.C.M.,  Jonathan S. T. Sham, M.D.,  Cecilia L. W. Chan, Ph.D. Author NotesAnnals of Behavioral Medicine, Volume 44, Issue 2, October 2012, Pages 160–170, https://doi.org/10.1007/s12160-012-9381-627 June 2012.

Cognitive Health & Tai Chi: Effects of Tai Chi and Qigong on cognitive and physical functions in older adults: systematic review, meta-analysis, and meta-regression of randomized clinical trials. Park, M. song. r, Ju K. et al., BMC Geriatr 23, 352 (2023). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12877-023-04070-2

Effects of Tai Chi Chuan on Cognitive Function in Adults 60 Years or Older with Type 2 Diabetes and Mild Cognitive Impairment in China: A Randomized Clinical Trial, Chen, y, Qin, J Tao, L. et al., JAMA: (2023) Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation.

Is Tai Chi more Effective than Walking for Cognitive Decline? (2023) Jama Open Network

White Crane Spreads Wings— Lafayette Reservoir

Depression: Effectiveness of a Qigong program on sleep quality among community-dwelling older adults with mild to moderate depression: A randomized controlled trial, Phenphop Phansuea, Sookjaroen Tangwongchai, Thanapoom Rattananupong, Vitool Lohsoonthorn, SomratLertmaharit , Journal of Health Research, ISSN: 2586-940X, Open Access. Article publication date: 2 March 2020, Issue publication date: 7 August 2020.

Sitting Tai Chi was found to have favorable effects on depressive symptoms, heart rate, and social domain of quality of life of individuals with impaired physical mobility. More research is needed on dynamic sitting balance, handgrip strength, and the physical and psychological domains of quality of life. The effects of sitting Tai Chi on physical and psychosocial health outcomes among individuals with impaired physical mobility. A systematic review and meta-analysis.” Jie ZhaoJanita Pak Chun ChauSuzanne Hoi Shan LoKai Chow ChoiSurui LiangInt J Nurs Stud,  2021 Mar 3;118:103911.doi: 10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2021.103911. PMID: 33751992   DOI: 10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2021.103911

Death, fear of:

Zhou J, Wu B, Su L, Ma X. The influence of tai chi on the death anxiety of elderly people living alone: the chain mediating effect of social support and psychological capital. Front Psychol. 2024 Jan 8;14:1303524. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2023.1303524. PMID: 38298370; PMCID: PMC10828961.

EMDR:

• Check out this article (book chapter) by a colleague/friend of mine, Eric Leskowitz, MD., for an interesting energy oriented perspective on EMDR’s mechanism of action: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/333702778_EMDR_and_Subtle_Energy_A_Proposed_Mechanism_of_Action, DOI:10.1155/2016/5935782

Comparison of efficacy of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing of emotional freedom technique and cognitive-behavioral therapy in PTSD in covid-19, Akbari, M, Aghdasi, et al, Jour of Modern Psychological Researches, June 2023. EMDR proved most effective; all three methods were helpful.

Falls:

Tai Chi for the Prevention of Falls Among Older Adults: A Critical Analysis of the Evidence, Nyman, S. 2020, Jour. of Aging and Physical Activity, Vol 29 Issue 2.

Fibromyalgia:

Qigong and Fibromyalgia: Randomized Controlled Trials and Beyond, 2014, Sawynok & Lynch, M., Evidence Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Volume 2014 | Article ID 379715 | https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/379715

Traditional Chinese Medicine for Fibromyalgia, Mist, S,Wright, C., et al, 2010 ,Pract. Pain Manag., NIH, National Library ofMedicine.

Wang C, Schmid CH, Rones R, Kalish R, Yinh J, Goldenberg DL, Lee Y, McAlindon T. A randomized trial of tai chi for fibromyalgia. N Engl J Med. 2010 Aug 19;363(8):743-54. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa0912611. PMID: 20818876; PMCID: PMC3023168.

Heart: Blood Pressure and Heart Rate Variability:

• Li X, Chang P, Wu M, et al. Effect of Tai Chi vs Aerobic Exercise on Blood Pressure in Patients With Prehypertension: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Netw Open. 2024;7(2):e2354937. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2023.54937

•Tai Chi can improve the blood pressure of patients with hypertension by decreasing the serum Ang II level and increasing the serum NO level. Effect and mechanism of Tai Chi on blood pressure of patients with essential hypertension: a randomized controlled study, Bo LinQiu JinChunhua LiuWenhui ZhaoRunyuan Ji J Sports Med Phys Fitness, 2021 Dec 9. doi: 10.23736/S0022-4707.21.13394-8.Online ahead of print.

Effects of Tai Chi on essential hypertension and related risk factors: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials, Guan, Y., Hao, Y et al., 2020, J. Rehab Med, Pub Med

Qigong and Heart Rate Variability: Overview of research. https://www.health.harvard.edu/blog/heart-rate-variability-new-way-track-well-2017112212789

Qigong and Heart Rate Variability: A systematic Review, Ramos, C, Franca W et al. 2017, Jour of Biosciences and Medicines, 5 120-127.

What Is Heart Rate Variability? And Why Does It Matter? Aldao,, A. 2014, Psychology Today.

Measurement of heart rate variability and cognitive abilities based on attachment styles in children with chronic medical conditions, 2019 Ghafarimoghadam, F Araini, F., Scientific Reports 9, Open Acess.

A meta-analysis of heart rate variability and neuroimaging studies: Implications for heart rate variability as a marker of stress and health, Thayer, J., Ahs, F, et al., 2012, Neuroscience & Behavioral Reviews, Vol 36, Issue 2.

Insomnia

Improving Sleep Quality in Older Adults with Moderate Sleep Complaints: A Randomized Controlled Trial of Tai Chi Chih, Irwin MR, Olmstead R, Motivala SJ., Sleep. 2008 Jul;31(7):1001-8. PMID: 18652095; PMCID: PMC2491506.

Cognitive behavioral therapy vs. Tai Chi for late life insomnia and inflammatory risk: a randomized controlled comparative efficacy trial. Irwin MR, Olmstead R, Carrillo C, Sadeghi N, Breen EC, Witarama T, Yokomizo M, Lavretsky H, Carroll JE, Motivala SJ, Bootzin R, Nicassio P., Sleep. 2014 Sep 1;37(9):1543-52. doi: 10.5665/sleep.4008. PMID: 25142571; PMCID: PMC4153053.

Bonab, S. B., and Parvaneh, M. (2022). The effect of twelve weeks of tai chi exercises on sleep quality, pain perception, and death anxiety in elderly women. Ann. Med. Psychol. 180, 905–911. doi: 10.1016/j.amp.2022.01.019

Longevity:

One Legged Stance Correlated with Longevity: Arujo, C. et al. (2021) Successful 10-second one-legged stance performance predicts survival in middle-aged and older individuals, British Journal of Sports Medicine, http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2021-105360. Balance quickly diminishes after the mid-50s increasing the risk for falls and other adverse health outcomes. Our aim was to assess whether the ability to complete a 10- s one-legged stance (10-second OLS) is associated with all-cause mortality and whether it adds relevant prognostic information beyond ordinary demographic, anthropometric and clinical data. Within the limitations of uncontrolled variables such as recent history of falls and physical activity, the ability to successfully complete the 10-s OLS is independently associated with all-cause mortality and adds relevant prognostic information beyond age, sex and several other anthropometric and clinical variables.

Effects of Tai Chi on telomerase activity and gerotranscendence in middle aged and elderly adults in Chinese society, Duan, G., Wang, K. et al., 2016, International Journal of Nursing, Vol 3. Issue 1, pp 235-41.

• Here is a copy of an article on Tai Chi Ruler, Written by Professor Jerry Alan Johnson, which gives s good review of the history and practice of this classic longevity method. For Dr. Michael’s adaptation of this method to go along with the “Four Dimensions of Purpose approach” please contact him. For example, in his You Tube video on this site you’ll learn how to use this method to reverse the sympathetic nervous system fight, flight , freeze response to create a parasympathetic nervous system relaxation response. The parasympathetic nervous system is key for healing dysregulation activating the immune system, and longevity.

Nomura T, Nagano K, Takato J, Ueki S, Matsuzaki Y, Yasumura S. The development of a Tai Chi exercise regimen for the prevention of conditions requiring long-term care in Japan. Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2011 May-Jun;52(3):e198-203. doi: 10.1016/j.archger.2010.11.010. Epub 2010 Dec 8. PMID: 21145120.

Hartley L, Flowers N, Lee MS, Ernst E, Rees K. Tai chi for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014 Apr 9;(4):CD010366. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD010366.pub2. PMID: 24715694.

Wu G. Evaluation of the effectiveness of Tai Chi for improving balance and preventing falls in the older population–a review. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2002 Apr;50(4):746-54. doi: 10.1046/j.1532-5415.2002.50173.x. PMID: 11982679.

Loewenthal J, Berning MJ, Wayne PM, Eckstrom E, Orkaby AR. Holistic frailty prevention: The promise of movement-based mind-body therapies. Aging Cell. 2024 Jan;23(1):e13986. doi: 10.1111/acel.13986. Epub 2023 Sep 12. PMID: 37698149; PMCID: PMC10776124.

Mind-Body Healthcare & the Relaxation Response:

• Harvard researcher and best-selling author of “The Relaxation Response.” Dr. Herbert Benson, explains how Mind-Body practices like Tai Chi and Qigong more effectively treat 60 to 90% of health issues than drug or surgical therapies. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KZ7JfC3_Zgc

Mobility:

Yiting , Liu Meng , Zhou Kaixiang , Dong Gengxin , Manor Brad , Bao Dapeng , Zhou Junhong, The comparison between effects of Taichi and conventional exercise on functional mobility and balance in healthy older adults: a systematic literature review and meta-analysis, Frontiers in Public Health, VOl, 11, 2023, https://www.frontiersin.org/journals/public-health/articles/10.3389/fpubh.2023.1281144, DOI=10.3389/fpubh.2023.1281144.

Non-Hodgkins Lymphoma

Liang H, Guo J, Li CG. Long-Term Complete Remission of a Patient With Double-Hit Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Treated by Chemoimmunotherapy and Chinese Herbal Medicine. Integr Cancer Ther. 2023 Jan-Dec;22:15347354221147515. doi: 10.1177/15347354221147515. PMID: 36722702; PMCID: PMC9900160. “Prunella vulgaris (PV) is a commonly used Chinese herb for lymphoma. A clinical study revealed that PV is an effective and safe herbal medicine for non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma when used alone or adjuvant to chemotherapy.”

Guo XM, Li JX, Yang XF. [Clinical observation on 112 cases with non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma treated by Chinese herbs combined with chemotherapy]. Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 1997 Jun;17(6):325-7. Chinese. PMID: 9863121.

Vargas-Román K, De la Fuente-Solana EI, Cortés-Martín J, Sánchez-García JC, González-Vargas CJ, Díaz-Rodríguez L. Effect of a 16-Session Qigong Program in Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Survivors: A Randomized Clinical Trial. J Clin Med. 2022 Jun 14;11(12):3421. doi: 10.3390/jcm11123421. PMID: 35743490; PMCID: PMC9225257.

Fischetti F, Greco G, Cataldi S, Minoia C, Loseto G, Guarini A. Effects of Physical Exercise Intervention on Psychological and Physical Fitness in Lymphoma Patients. Medicina (Kaunas). 2019 Jul 16;55(7):379. doi: 10.3390/medicina55070379. PMID: 31315290; PMCID: PMC6681308.

Mei-Ling Yeh a, Yu-Chu Chung b A randomized controlled trial of qigong on fatigue and sleep quality for non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma patients undergoing chemotherapy, European Journal of Oncology Nursing, Vol 23 August 2016, pp 81-86.

Also see greenmedinfo.com/non-hodgkins lymphoma

Pain:

Myeong Soo Lee, Max H. Pittler, Edzard Ernst, Internal Qigong for Pain Conditions: A Systematic Review, The Journal of Pain,June 26, 2009 , DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpain.2009.03.009

Parkinson’s Disease and Chinese Medicine:

 Effects of Qigong Exercises on Patients with Parkinson’s Disease: A Follow-up Study. OBM Integrative and Complementary Medicine, Liu XL, Zhang YJ, Du XR, Ma YZ, Jiang RK, Chen SH, Wang YT. 2023; 8(1): 008; doi:10.21926/obm.icm.2301008.

The Effect of the Integrated Chinese and Western Medicine for the Treatment of Parkinson’s Disease: A Meta-Analysis. Wang Z, Wang T, Sheng B, Song W, Ji P. Comput Math Methods Med. 2022 Apr 8;2022:4134931. doi: 10.1155/2022/4134931.PMCID: PMC9012614.

Effects of tai chi and Qigong on cognition in neurological disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis, Yuxin Wang, Qi Zhang, Fei Li, Qi Li, Yi Jin, Geriatric Nursing,Volume 46,2 022,Pages 166-177,ISSN 0197-4572, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gerinurse.2022.05.014, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0197457222001343. Tai chi and Qigong were effective interventions to improve cognition in patients with Parkinson’s disease, stroke, mild cognitive impairment, dementia, and traumatic brain injury.

Clinical Effectiveness of acupuncture on Parkinson’s Disease: Lun s. & Lim S., 2017, link from Pub Med Central, a meta-analysis,

The impact of Tai Chi and Qigong mind-body exercises on motor and non-motor function and quality of life in Parkinson’s disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis, Song R, Grabowska W, Park M, Osypiuk K, Vergara-Diaz GP, Bonato P, et al. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2017; 41: 3-13. [CrossRef]

• Effect of Health Qigong Exercise on Relieving Symptoms of Parkinson’ disease, Liu, X .& Wang, Y. , 2016, January 2016, Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2016(4):1-11.

Effectiveness of Traditional Chinese Medicine as an Adjunct Therapy for Parkinson’s Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis, 2015, Zhang, G, Xiong, N. , Plos One Open access

The effect of Tai Chi on functional mobility, balance and falls in Parkinson’s disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis of systematic reviews, Aras, b, Seyyar, G., Oznur Fidan, Ertugrul Colak, et al, 2021, Pub Med., DOI: 10.1016/j.explore.2021.12.002

A systematic review and meta-analysis of the effects of Qigong and Tai Chi for depressive symptoms, 2015, Liu, X, Clark, J.Comp Ther. Med

A randomized controlled trial of Tai Chi for balance, sleep quality and cognitive performance in elderly Vietnamese. Clinical interventions in aging, Nguen, M., & Kruse, a. (2012). Pub med, DOI: 10.2147/CIA.S32600

The Mechanisms of Traditional Chinese Medicine Underlying the Prevention and Treatment of Parkinson’s Disease, Li, X, Zhang, et.al., 2017, Front Parmacol 8:634

Other Treatment Modalities for Parkinsons:

Michael J. Fox Foundation Research News

Focused Ultrasound Can Bring Relief for Parkinson’s Patients, AARP; Three-year follow-up of prospective trial of focused ultrasound thalamotomy for essential tremor, 2019, Halpern, C, Santini, V, et al, Pub. Med, Randomized Controlled Trial.

•  Levodopa-induced Dyskinesia: Clinical Features, Pathophysiology, and Medical Management. Pandey S, Srivanitchapoom P. Ann Indian Acad Neurol. 2017 Jul-Sep;20(3):190-198. doi: 10.4103/aian.AIAN_239_17. PMID: 28904447; PMCID: PMC5586110.

Naturopathic Approaches to Parkinson’s Diseaxe

• Physiotherapy in Parkinson’s Disease: A Meta-Analysis of Present Treatment Modalities, 2020, Radder, D. Lime, A. et al., Pub Med.

Mucuna pruriens a natural remedy for Parkinson’s Disease?, APDA public website. Or Pub Med research: Cilia R, Laguna J, Cassani E, Cereda E, Raspini B, Barichella M, Pezzoli G. Daily intake of Mucuna pruriens in advanced Parkinson’s disease: A 16-week, noninferiority, randomized, crossover, pilot study. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2018 Apr;49:60-66. doi: 10.1016/j.parkreldis.2018.01.014. Epub 2018 Jan 11. PMID: 29352722.

A Report of 10 cases of Parkinson’s Disease cured by Xifengzhizhan pills and Xifengzhizhan capsules, 2020, Weifan, W, Jour of Brain and Neurology, Vol 3 Issue 1. Note: For studies like this that report cures, please be circumspect about research methodology issues. For example please see the peer reviewed articles below on research methodology considerations.

Research Methodology Issues: For better understanding of the complexity of research methodology issues on Tai Chi, Qigong, and hypertension etc. see:  

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1462388916300436

• Mayer, M. (1999).Qigong and hypertension: A critique of researchJournal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 5(4), 371-382.

• Mayer, M. (2003). Qigong clinical studies. In W. B. Jonas (Ed.), Healing, intention, and energy medicine (pp. 121-137). England: Churchill Livingston.

• Mayer, M. (2010). Hypertension: An integral bodymind healing approach . Natural Standard: The Authority on Integrative Medicine (Peer Reviewed). Also available on this website as an on-line Webinar: Click here.

• Wayne PM, Kaptchuk T. J2008). Challenges inherent to Tai Chi research: part I—Tai Chi as a complex multicomponent intervention, J. Altern. Complement. Med. 14, 95–102. 10.1089/acm.2007.7170A [PubMed]

• Wayne PM, Kaptchuk TJ. Challenges inherent to t’ai chi research: part II-defining the intervention and optimal study design. J Altern Complement Med. 2008 Mar;14(2):191-7. doi: 10.1089/acm.2007.7170b. PMID: 18446928.

Stroke:

Moonkyoung Park ,Rhayun Song  , Kyoungok Ju , et al, (2022), Effects of Tai Chi and Qigong on the mobility of stroke survivors: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials, Plos One, Published: November 17, 2022https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0277541.

• Ching-Hsiang Chen1, Kuo-Sheng Hung2, Yu-Chu Chung3 and Mei-Ling Yeh, (2019), Mind–body interactive qigong improves physical and mental aspects of quality of life in inpatients with stroke: A randomized control study, European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing 1–9, https://doi.org/10.1177/1474515119860232


Research on Energy Psychology:

• While energy psychology as a field is still relatively young, its evidence base continues to grow in both quantity and quality. 

• As of February 2022, 70+ randomized control trials, over 55 pre-post outcome studies, 5 meta-analyses and 19 systematic reviews have been published on EP methods in English-speaking, peer-reviewed journals. In addition, over 80 research studies have been published in non-English journals. These modalities have been researched by more than 200 investigators in over 12 countries.

The results of these studies have been published in more than 15 different peer-reviewed journals, including the Journal of Clinical Psychology, the Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease and the APA journals Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training and Review of General Psychology. While questions about mechanism remain – specifically how these techniques work - a robust and growing body of research continues to document their effectiveness. 

• Energy psychology is a mind-body approach. The next frontier of EP research involves exploring the mechanisms of action of these modalities and investigating concurrent physiological changes using such tools as qEEG and fMRI and PET scans, and documenting changes in cortisol levels, gene expression and immunological function (to date, research has shown these changes to be positive).  

• A recent article by David Feinstein reported,“….The review derives 6 premises about the method’s efficacy, speed, durability, and physiologic effects that have enough empirical support …. in delineating and making claims about the approach. These include that acu-point tapping protocols (a) are effective in treating a range of clinical conditions, (b) are rapid compared to conventional treatments, (c) lead to durable benefits, (d) produce changes in biologic markers that corroborate the subjective assessments of clients, (e) are a critical ingredient for the demonstrated clinical effects and (f) send signals that can increase or decrease arousal in specific areas of the brain.” 

“Further consideration of the mechanisms that lead to the reported rapid, durable outcomes suggest that the approach has an unusual capacity for revising outdated mental models….” Published in Advances in Mind Body Medicine, Spring 2021,35(2). 

Reprinted from the ACEP website. For a more comprehensive view of The Science behind Energy Psychology see: https://www.energypsych.org/researchdb8c71b7

• Forbes Magazine, Emily Laurence (Oct .25, 2022) published an article further moving EP into the Mainstream of public awareness and clinical practice, “EFT Tapping: What you need to know.”


Key articles on Energy Psychology by David Feinstein, Ph.D.*:

• Feinstein, D. (2024, April 25). The Real Reasons Energy Psychology Is Proving to Be Durable: Rejoinder to “Acupressure in Psychotherapy as an Unsinkable Rubber Duck, Reply to Feinstein (2023)”. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/ysg6u

• Boness, C. L., Pfund, R. A., & Tolin, D. (2023, August 1). Acupressure in Psychotherapy as an Unsinkable Rubber Duck: A reply to Feinstein (2023). https://doi.org/10.1037/int0000315

• Feinstein, D. (2022). Integrating the manual stimulation of acupuncture points into psychotherapy: A systematic review with clinical recommendations. Journal of Psychotherapy Integration. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1037/int0000283, https://www.growkudos.com/publications/10.1037%25252Fint0000283/reader. The integration of techniques from acupressure into conventional psychotherapy has been the subject of more than 300 peer-reviewed journal articles, including over 125 clinical trials. This review finds that this evidence shows the approach to be not only effective, but unusually rapid and that the improvements are durable. The mechanisms that lead to these outcomes, implications for clinicians, and directions for future research are all discussed.

• Feinstein, D. (2019). Energy psychology: Efficacy, speed, mechanisms, Elsevier, Vol 15, Issue 5, Sept, pp. 340-351. (https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1550830718303513)

• Feinstein, D. (2012). Acupoint stimulation in treating psychological disorders: Evidence of efficacy. Review of General Psychology, 16, 364-380. 

• Feinstein, D. (2008b). Energy psychology in disaster relief. Traumatology. 14(1), 124–137.

* To learn how Dr Mayer’s approach includes but expands upon the traditional tapping methods of energy psychology (Click here  to view the originally published in the Association for Comprehensive Energy Psychology Newsletter) For a more in-depth comparison, please see Dr Mayer’s book Energy Psychology: Self-healing Methods for Bodymind Health (North Atlantic/Random House, 2009, republished by Bodymind Healing Publications, 2022). Or Click here to learn more or schedule a BMH Energy Psychology session oriented to your specific needs.


Selected references for The Efficacy of Tai Chi, Qigong and Energy Psychology, plus other related references. 

Pain:

Stapleton, P., Baumann, O., O’Keefe, T., & Bhuta, S. (2022). Neural changes after Emotional Freedom Techniques treatment for chronic pain sufferers. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice 49, 101653. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ctcp.2022.101653. “24 adults reporting persistent chronic pain took part in a six-week online group program that utilized a tapping protocol for pain management. Changes in the resting state fMRI from pre- to post-treatment were observed in the medial prefrontal cortex, anarea that modulates pain, and in the bilateral grey matter regions of the posterior cingulate cortex and thalamus, both of which are associated with the regulation or exaggeration of pain. These changes corresponded with significant reductions in the subjective intensity of the pain and the extent to which it disrupted daily activities.” (Feinstein, 2024)

Stretching is a major staple of Tai Chi/Qigong. But even without Tai Chi/Qigong check out these three articles on how stretching was uniquely associated with lower risk for al-cause mortality:


Schuler, L (2024) Is Stretching now Underrated? Accumulating Research Says Yes, Medscape Psychiatry, Feb 27, 2024.

Sheehan CM, Li L. Associations of Exercise Types with All-Cause Mortality among U.S. Adults. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2020 Dec;52(12):2554-2562. doi: 10.1249/MSS.0000000000002406. PMID: 32520868.

Cho Y, Jang H, Kwon S, Oh H. Aerobic, muscle-strengthening, and flexibility physical activity and risks of all-cause and cause-specific mortality: a population-based prospective cohort of Korean adults. BMC Public Health. 2023 Jun 14;23(1):1148. doi: 10.1186/s12889-023-15969-1. PMID: 37316812; PMCID: PMC10268385.

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